4 Function of Capsule in Bacterial Cell

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The capsule—which can be found in both gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria—should not be confused with the second lipid membrane (or bacterial outer membrane), which contains lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins and is found only in Gram-negative bacteria. When the amorphous viscid secretion (that makes up the capsule) diffuses into the surrounding medium and remains as a loose undemarcated secretion, it is known as slime layer.
A bacterial capsule has a semi-ridged border that follows the contour of the cell. The capsule excludes India Ink when dyed. A slime layer is a non-ridged matrix that is easily deformed and is not able to exclude India Ink. Biofilms are composed of many cells and their outer barriers. The primary functions of both capsules and slime layers are for protection and adhesion.
4 Function of Capsule in Bacterial Cell includes ;
  1. The capsule is considered a virulence factors because it enhances the ability of bacteria to cause disease (e.g. prevents phagocytosis). 
  2. The capsule can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages.
  3. Capsules also contain water which protects the bacteria against desiccation. They also exclude bacterial viruses and most hydrophobic toxic materials such as detergents
  4. Capsules also help cells adhere to surfaces.

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